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Frequently Asked Questions

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Software & Data Processing

Cells that have been contaminated with foreign material generally read low of the actual conductivity. Your zero (in air) conductivity reading is generally unaffected.

The conductivity error due to fouling will generally be proportional to the conductivity value. Conductivity is corrected not as an offset but as a ratio (multiplicative) error compared to a reference.

Salinity is a derivative measurement of temperature, conductivity, and pressure, and should be corrected by adjusting the component measurements. Generally speaking, an error in the conductivity measurement will correlate to a directly proportional error in the salinity measurement.

The temperature and salinity correction for the SUNA can be traced to the experiment outlined in Sakamoto et al. 2009, which is the T/S correction our UCI-based SUNA software uses in post-processing only.

Absorption of UV light in seawater is dominated by dissolved nitrate and bromide ions at wavelengths less than 240 nm. To estimate nitrate, it is necessary to remove the absorption due to bromide. The salinity correction addresses the sea salt extinction coefficients due to bromide. In the real ocean, bromide covaries with NaCl.  So, during calibration, we can measure the the bromide absorption due to seawater at one salinity and later predict the absorption due to seawater at any salinity.

Artifical seawater surrogates do not necessarily have the correct bromide absorption to be able to validate the the Sakamoto et al. 2009 salinity correction, so the salinity correction may not product accurate results if your data was not collected in natural seawater.

This modification allows the SBE9plus CTD to accept an RS-232C serial instrument data stream and transmit to the surface.

The acceptable baud rate at the SBE9plus CTD is determined by the EPROM version installed in the modem board. These modem board options include, 9600 or 19200 baud, 8 bit data, and “none” parity. At the surface the SBE11 deck unit will extract the serial data from the standard telemetry and transmit data to a remote host PC/computer via a DB-9 connector on the back panel of the deck unit. This data is transmitted to the host computer at 19200 baud regardless of the serial instrument baud rate at the underwater unit.

The SBE 911plus system was designed with idea that all 9plus would operate with all 11plus deck units. With the modification for serial uplink, however, only a modified 9plus will work with a modified 11plus.

Scientific

Cells that have been contaminated with foreign material generally read low of the actual conductivity. Your zero (in air) conductivity reading is generally unaffected.

The conductivity error due to fouling will generally be proportional to the conductivity value. Conductivity is corrected not as an offset but as a ratio (multiplicative) error compared to a reference.

Salinity is a derivative measurement of temperature, conductivity, and pressure, and should be corrected by adjusting the component measurements. Generally speaking, an error in the conductivity measurement will correlate to a directly proportional error in the salinity measurement.

The temperature and salinity correction for the SUNA can be traced to the experiment outlined in Sakamoto et al. 2009, which is the T/S correction our UCI-based SUNA software uses in post-processing only.

Absorption of UV light in seawater is dominated by dissolved nitrate and bromide ions at wavelengths less than 240 nm. To estimate nitrate, it is necessary to remove the absorption due to bromide. The salinity correction addresses the sea salt extinction coefficients due to bromide. In the real ocean, bromide covaries with NaCl.  So, during calibration, we can measure the the bromide absorption due to seawater at one salinity and later predict the absorption due to seawater at any salinity.

Artifical seawater surrogates do not necessarily have the correct bromide absorption to be able to validate the the Sakamoto et al. 2009 salinity correction, so the salinity correction may not product accurate results if your data was not collected in natural seawater.

Service

Cells that have been contaminated with foreign material generally read low of the actual conductivity. Your zero (in air) conductivity reading is generally unaffected.

The conductivity error due to fouling will generally be proportional to the conductivity value. Conductivity is corrected not as an offset but as a ratio (multiplicative) error compared to a reference.

Salinity is a derivative measurement of temperature, conductivity, and pressure, and should be corrected by adjusting the component measurements. Generally speaking, an error in the conductivity measurement will correlate to a directly proportional error in the salinity measurement.

Field Procedures & Deployment

Cells that have been contaminated with foreign material generally read low of the actual conductivity. Your zero (in air) conductivity reading is generally unaffected.

The conductivity error due to fouling will generally be proportional to the conductivity value. Conductivity is corrected not as an offset but as a ratio (multiplicative) error compared to a reference.

Salinity is a derivative measurement of temperature, conductivity, and pressure, and should be corrected by adjusting the component measurements. Generally speaking, an error in the conductivity measurement will correlate to a directly proportional error in the salinity measurement.

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